Skin Care

Skin anti-aging Strategies

Skin anti-aging strategies

Introduction

Skin aging is a part of a natural human “aging mosaic” which becomes evident and follows different trajectories in different organs, tissues and cells with time. While the aging signs of internal organs are masked from the ambient “eyes,” the skin provides first obvious marks of the passing time.

Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by combination of  intrinsic (genetics, cellular metabolism, hormone and metabolic processes) andextrinsic (chronic light exposure, pollution, ionizing radiation, chemicals, toxins) factors. These factors lead together to cumulative structural and physiological alterations and progressive changes in each skin layer as well as changes in skin appearance, especially, on the sun-exposed skin areas. Typically finely aged skin,  shows a thickened superficial layer, mottled discoloration, deep wrinkles, laxity, dullness and roughness. Gradual loss of skin elasticity leads to the phenomenon of sagging. Slowing of the superficial layer turnover rate and cell cycle lengthening coincides with a slower wound healing and less effective skin peeling in older adults.  A marked loss of fibrillin-positive structures as well as a reduced content of collagen , may contribute to wrinkles by weakening the bond between skin layers in age skin.

 Sun-exposed aged skin is sparse distribution and decrease in collagen content and increased collagen degradation. In older skin, collagen looks irregular and disorganized. In photo-aged skin, abnormal elastotic material is unable to function effectively. The total hyaluronic acid (HA) level in the deeper layer of skin remains stable with age; however, in superficial layer HA diminishes markedly.

Three primary structural components of the dermis, collagen, elastin and GAGs have been the subjects of the majority of anti-aging research and efforts for aesthetic-anti-aging strategies pertaining to the skin, from ”anti-wrinkle creams” to various filling agents.

Presentation of aging of the entire face is associated with the gravity impact, muscles action, loss of volume, diminishing and redistribution of superficial and deep fat, loss of bony skeleton support what all together lead to the face sagging, changes in shape and contour. Regardless of the fact that aging is a biological inevitable process and not a pathological condition it is correlated with various skin and body diseases , including degenerative disorders, benign and malignant tumours.

The ‘successful aging’ paradigm, focuses on health and active participation in life, counters traditional conceptualizations of aging as a time of disease and is increasingly equated with minimizing age signs on the skin, face and body. From this perspective, preventative aesthetic dermatology might supplement the request for healthy aging, treat or prevent certain cutaneous disorders, notably skin cancer, and delay skin aging combining local and systemic methods of therapy, instrumental devices and invasive procedures. The mainspring of any skin anti-aging therapy is to achieve a healthy, smooth, blemish-free, translucent and resilient skin. In clinical practice, “to look better” doesn’t mean to “look younger.” That is why it is so important to understand patients’ wishes and to orientate them to the treatment modality that will give the most satisfying results whereas knowing all available treatment techniques. The age, previous procedures or surgery, general health status, type of the skin, style of life and many other factors should be taken into consideration before choosing the strategy for the individual case. The desired therapeutic anti-aging effect of the skin is continuous, step-by step process, which combines various methods of the skin bio-revitalization and rejuvenation, augmentation, restoration of each skin layer individually and in the light of many other factors—from a style of the life to the immune, genetic, emotional and health status in general. This review will emphasize the most important topical and systemic therapeutic agents and trends in the use of invasive procedures.

Skin Aging Prevention and Therapy

The skin anti-aging strategies attempted to reverse the dermal and epidermal signs of photo- and chronological aging can be grouped under the following approaches

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